Grochenwaith 6ed-7fed Ganrif AD/ 6th-7th Century AD pottery   Leave a comment

BETH GALL UN DARN O GROCHENWAITH DDWEUD WRTHYM NI?

Yr ateb i’r cwestiwn uchod yw ‘llawer iawn’ os yw’n fath penodol o grochenwaith. Adroddwyd canlyniadau cychwynnol cloddio capel oesoedd canol cynnar Porth Clew yng Nghylchlythyr Hydref 2009. Ers hynny darganfuwyd darn bychan o grochenwaith – sydd wedi ei enwi, heb lawer o ddychymyg, yn Grochenwaith Dosbarth E – ymysg y canfyddiadau cloddiedig. Gellir gweld Crochenwaith Dosbarth E ar hyd arfordir Môr yr Iwerydd ac arfordir Môr Iwerddon Prydain ac Iwerddon, ond mae’n brin iawn gyda dim ond oddeutu 200 o ddarnau wedi’u darganfod mewn 60 lleoliad. Mae’n debygol y cafodd y darn ei gynhyrchu yng ngorllewin Ffrainc ac mae ei bresenoldeb ym Mhrydain yn dystiolaeth go iawn o fasnach ar hyd arfordir gorllewin Ewrop a Môr y Canoldir yn y 6ed-7fed Ganrif AD. Nid oedd masnach rhwng gorllewin Prydain a’r cyfandir cyfagos yn bosibl ar bob adeg yn ystod y cyfnod hwn, ac felly roedd y llwybr masnach gorllewinol yn bwysig iawn. Crochenwaith Dosbarth E yw un o’r unig ddarnau o dystiolaeth gadarn o’r fasnach hwn. Nid y crochenwaith ei hun oedd yn cael ei brynu a’i werthu, ond yr hyn oedd yn cael ei gadw yn y crochenwaith, sef gwin yn fwy na thebyg. Roedd gwin yn nwydd moethus yn ogystal â bod yn hanfodol i’r Ewcarist, sydd o bosibl yn esbonio sut cyrhaeddodd Crochenwaith Dosbarth E gapel Porth Clew. Mae archwiliadau gwyddonol o bum sgerbwd ym Mhorth Clew wedi darparu tystiolaeth o gyswllt rhwng Cymru a de Ewrop. Mae proses dadansoddi Strontium Isotope o enamel dannedd y sgerbydau hyn wedi profi bod tri o’r bobl yn debygol o ddod o ddwyrain Cymru ac un yn dod o wlad â hinsawdd gynnes. Ai un o’r morwyr ddaeth â Crochenwaith Dosbarth E i Gymru oedd y person hwn?

E ware from Buiston, Scotland. National Museum Scotland

WHAT CAN A SINGLE PIECE OF POTTERY TELL US?

The answer to the above question is an awful lot, if it is the right sort of pottery. The initial results of the excavations at Porth Clew early medieval chapel and cemetery were reported on in the Autumn 2009 Newsletter. Since then a small piece of pottery called, imaginatively, Class E ware has been identified amongst the excavated finds. E ware is found along the Atlantic coast and Irish Sea coast of Britain and Ireland, but is rare, with only about 200 sherds known from 60 locations. It was probably made in western France and its presence in Britain is tangible evidence of trade along the west coast of Europe and into the Mediterranean in the 6th-7th century AD. This was a time when trade between western Britain and the near continent was not always possible, and therefore the western trade route was of great importance. E ware is one of the few hard pieces of evidence for this trade. It was not the pottery itself that was being traded, but what it contained, which was probably wine. Wine would have been a luxury good, but it was also essential for the Eucharist, which may be how the piece of E ware ended up at Porth Clew chapel. Scientific investigation of five skeletons from Porth Clew also provides evidence for contact between Wales and southern Europe. Strontium Isotope analysis of tooth enamel from these skeletons demonstrates that three of the people probably came from eastern Wales and one came from a hot climate. Was this person one of the sailors who brought E ware and other goods to Wales?

Posted August 4, 2010 by dyfedher in Uncategorized

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